Distribution of proved coal reserves: 1994, 2004 and 2014 (Percentage)
In the past 10 years, more than 100 million tons of coal have been mined. Available quantity of prime coking coals in the world is dwindling fast. The quality of coking coal degrades The coal consumption is rising and is heavily dependent on imports.
Brussels, 26 May 2014:
20 critical raw materials - major challenge for EU industry
The European Commission presented today a revised list of Critical Raw Materials. The 2014 list includes 13 of the 14 materials identified in the previous list of 2011, with only tantalum moving out of the list (due to a lower supply risk). Six new materials appear on the list: borates, chromium, coking coal, magnesite, phosphate rock and silicon metal bringing the number up to 20 raw materials which are now considered critical by the European Commission. The other 14 raw materials are: antimony, beryllium, cobalt, fluorspar, gallium, germanium, indium, magnesium, natural graphite, niobium, platinum group metals, heavy rare earths, light rare earths and tungsten (MEMO/14/377).
Economically exploitable reserves
(Total reserves: 900 billion tons)
COALS FOR STAMP CHARGING
As stamp charging can accommodate a wide range of coals, it is difficult to specify an individual coal of the blend.
In general, the vitrinite reflectance will be below 1.0 and the ash less than 10.0 %, if available.
Volatile matter can be as high as 35 % in a particular coal (Australian ultra high volatile) but has to be balanced by the addition of low volatile coals and/or petroleum coke or coke dust.
In case the price is low enough, small quantities (10 %) of very low ash non-coking coals can also be added to a stamp charged blend.
During the international conference “Coal and coke; September 2015, Moscow, Russia” a price saving from 35$/ton of coal was termed by an independent coke making expert. (Price difference coal top- / coal stamp charging)
Stamp Charge Technology is generating a huge cost savings potential for pig iron production .